Tiny Crustaceans Are Fragmenting Microplastics Into Even Smaller Nanoplastics - Physics-Astronomy.org

Tiny Crustaceans Are Fragmenting Microplastics Into Even Smaller Nanoplastics

Microplastics are widespread in seas and oceans, and their harmful effects on many different marine animals are well known. However, we know relatively little about the microplastics in our freshwater rivers, streams and lakes.
We still don't know exactly where they come from, where they end up – and crucially – what damage they can cause if they get into food chains.




Until now, plastic fragmentation had largely been attributed to processes such as sunlight or wave action, which can take years or decades. But it turns out a tiny shrimp-like creature can do the same job much faster.
I am a researcher who specialises in microplastics in the environment. In my latest study, colleagues and I have shown that microplastics (plastic pieces smaller than 5 mm) in freshwaters are being broken down into even smaller nanoplastics (smaller than one micrometre, at least five thousand times smaller in size) by a type of freshwater invertebrate animal, and that this may happen much faster than previously estimated.
Left: two fragmented microplastics in an amphipod's gut. Right: a nanoplastic fragment. (Alicia Mateos Cardenas)
Fragmented microplastics in an amphipod (left); a nanoplastic fragment (right). (Alicia Mateos Cardenas)
Our results, newly published in the Nature journal Scientific Reports, highlight the role of biological fragmentation of microplastics, which has been understudied so far.
The animal in question is a 2 cm-long crustacean, the freshwater amphipod Gammarus duebeni. This specific species lives in Irish streams, but it belongs to a bigger group of invertebrates that are common in both freshwater and the oceans around the world.
Our finding therefore has big consequences for how we understand the environmental fate of microplastics.
Our first experiments had been carried out to understand the potential negative effects (if any) of microplastics in the amphipods. However, some surprising early results led me to run new experiments focused on gathering evidence to show that microplastics were being fragmented biologically – by G. duebeni themselves.
In order to find out about this, I exposed the amphipods in the laboratory to a certain type of microplastics that have a specific colour dye. I then dissected the digestive tracts of the amphipods and visualised them under a fluorescence microscope, which is able to track the dyed-microplastic in animal tissue.


We then concluded that Gammarus duebeni is able to fragment microplastics into different shapes and sizes, including nanoplastics, in less than four days.
We were able to track such fragmentation because the microplastics that we used were originally "microbeads" with a perfect spherical shape. Any plastic with irregular shapes therefore must have been fragmented by the animals, and nearly 66 percent of the microplastics found in the guts had indeed been fragmented in this way.
Remarkably, the proportion of smaller plastic fragments was highest when the amphipods were "purged" in the lab in a clean environment with no plastics but with their food. This finding indicates that biological fragmentation could be closely related to the feeding process.
We also ran some quality control checks, several side experiments to make sure that the plastic was indeed being fragmented by the amphipods and not some other source, and that we were accurately visualising the fluorescence particles.
Gammarus duebeni lives in freshwater, like this stream in County Cork, Ireland. (Alicia Mateos Cardenas)
Gammarus duebeni lives in freshwater, like this stream in County Cork, Ireland. (Alicia Mateos Cardenas)

Microplastics in the food chain

Why does this matter? We already know that microplastics can accumulate in the gut of seabirds and fish, and our current understanding is that the smaller nanoplastic particles could even penetrate cells and tissues, where their effects could be much harder to predict.
Therefore the finding that such a common animal can rapidly produce vast numbers of nanoplastics is particularly worrying. Since the crustaceans we looked at are eaten by fish and birds, any nanoplastic fragments that they produce may also be entering the food chain.


For example, scientists at the University of Cardiff recently showed for the first time that microplastics had been transferred up the food chain in a river, from small invertebrates through to dippers, the only songbird that can swim underwater. They looked at dipper regurgitates and faecal pellets from both adults and chicks and found microplastics in all of them.
We still don't know exactly what effect this microplastic transfer will have on the birds, especially in the early stages of their lives. But our results on the biological fragmentation of microplastics will help us to understand the role that animals can have in determining the fate of plastics in our waters. The Conversation
This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

32 comments:

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  2. i am very happy to share this little awesome testimony about Dr AZIBA a great herbal doctor who help me enlarge my penis size.3.2 cm to 8.3 cm longer with his herbal cream mixture, my girlfriend is now so amazed with the autonomous size of my penis. if you you are also in need of help on how to enlarge your penis to become bigger and stronger I advised you to contact Dr Aziba on his Email ( PRIESTAZIBASOLUTIONCENTER@GMAIL COM ) you or contact on whatsapp number +2348100368288 because he is one of the best herbal doctor that i can only show you up to, if your penis is 4.2 cm and want to get it reach 9.2 cm within three weeks Dr AZIBA is also specialized on breast and boobs enlargement i advise you to contact him for help DR AZIBA whatsapp number +2348100368288 .

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. CONTACT A GREAT SPELL CASTER DR IFADE TO BRING YOUR EX LOVER BACK VIA EMAIL ifadesolutionspell31@gmail.com WHATSAPP NUMBER +2349060120490. OR +1(551)333-5249.
      My name is Lisa Sandra   ,Am from Spain i live in USA,i never believe there will ever be a solution to my relationship problem with my lover. my lover called Randy West threw me out of his house and brought in another lady who he now feels is best for him. until one day i receive a phone call from a friend in the city that my man is going out on a date with another woman in town, i told her i am also surprise too, because since Randy West has left me he hardly think nor call me. so after some few days my friend called Alice called me and told me that she has found a man that is very powerful, and he is a great herbalist from Africa, truly we all knows that Africans are blessed with so much herbal powers which they use to help much people, so he told me that the man name is DR IFADE that she will forward his email address for me so that i can contact him for help, so truly she sent me DR IFADE email address and i contacted him that faithful day. he mailed me after a while that my man will be back to me if only i believe on his work,so after 48hours i receive a phone call from Randy West, and he started begging that i should please forgive him against all he had done to me.. he begged me for breaking my heart and he promise never to let go. now i and Randy West are now planning to get married as soon as possible. we are brought back with the great powerful love spell and blinded with DR IFADE spell, we are happy and glad. contact DR IFADE on this Email address ifadesolutionspell31@gmail.com  OR via WhatsApp number +2349060120490. OR +1(551)333-5249.

      Delete
  3. Hi Friends i am so glad to writing this article today to tell the world how Dr Sayo cured my HSV VIRUS,i have been detected with HSV-1 AND HSV-2 since five years ago, ever since then my life has been in complete bizarre and agony,i have used so many drugs that was prescribed to me by several doctors,but it didn't cure my HSV VIRUS neither did it reduce the pain,until a certain i was checking for solution in the internet,then miraculously came across Dr Sayo the powerful herbalist that cure numerous individuals HSV-1 AND HSV-2 INFECTION,then i contacted his email: sayoherbalhealer@gmail.com i explained everything to him and prepared a cure that cure my HSV-1 AND HSV-2 disease totally after receiving his herbal medicine, so my friends viewers why wait and be suffer when there is someone like Dr Sayo that can cure any disease HIV/ CANCER/ HEPATITIS B VIRUS, you can contact his via email: (sayoherbalhealer@gmail.com) check his FB page:  https://www.facebook.com/Sayo-Herbal-Healer-100145798345000/ OR visit his websites website; http://sayoherbalhealer.website2.me/  check blog: https://sayoherbalhealer.blogspot.com/  

    ReplyDelete
  4. Natural herbs have cured so many illness that drugs and injection can’t cure. I've seen the great importance of natural herbs and the wonderful work they have done in people's lives. i read people's testimonies online on how they were cured of HERPES, HIV, diabetics etc by Dr Edes herbal medicine, so i decided to contact the doctor because i know nature has the power to heal anything. I was diagnosed with Herpes for the past 3 years but Dr Edes cured me with his herbs and i referred my aunt and her husband to him immediately because they were both suffering from Herpes but to God be the glory, they were cured too .I know is hard to believe but am a living testimony. There is no harm trying herbs, Thanks. Write him on WhatsApp on +2348151937428. @dr_edes_remedies deals with
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    (2)Cancer
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    ReplyDelete
  5. Am Laura Mildred by name, i was diagnosed with Herpes 4 years ago i lived in pain with the knowledge that i wasn't going to ever be well again i contacted so many herbal doctors on this issue and wasted a large sum of money but my condition never got better i was determined to get my life back so one day i saw Mr. Morrison Hansen post on how Dr. Emu saved him from Herpes with herbal medicine i contacted Dr. Emu on his Email: Emutemple@gmail.com we spoke on the issue i told him all that i went through and he told me not to worry that everything will be fine again so he prepared the medicine and send it to me and told me how to use it, after 14 days of usage I went to see the doctor for test,then the result was negative, am the happiest woman on earth now thanks to Dr. Emu God bless you. Email him at: Emutemple@gmail.com Call or Whats-app him: +2347012841542 

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. CONTACT A GREAT SPELL CASTER DR IFADE TO BRING YOUR EX LOVER BACK VIA EMAIL ifadesolutionspell31@gmail.com WHATSAPP NUMBER +2349060120490. OR +1(551)333-5249.
      My name is Lisa Sandra   ,Am from Spain i live in USA,i never believe there will ever be a solution to my relationship problem with my lover. my lover called Randy West threw me out of his house and brought in another lady who he now feels is best for him. until one day i receive a phone call from a friend in the city that my man is going out on a date with another woman in town, i told her i am also surprise too, because since Randy West has left me he hardly think nor call me. so after some few days my friend called Alice called me and told me that she has found a man that is very powerful, and he is a great herbalist from Africa, truly we all knows that Africans are blessed with so much herbal powers which they use to help much people, so he told me that the man name is DR IFADE that she will forward his email address for me so that i can contact him for help, so truly she sent me DR IFADE email address and i contacted him that faithful day. he mailed me after a while that my man will be back to me if only i believe on his work,so after 48hours i receive a phone call from Randy West, and he started begging that i should please forgive him against all he had done to me.. he begged me for breaking my heart and he promise never to let go. now i and Randy West are now planning to get married as soon as possible. we are brought back with the great powerful love spell and blinded with DR IFADE spell, we are happy and glad. contact DR IFADE on this Email address ifadesolutionspell31@gmail.com  OR via WhatsApp number +2349060120490. OR +1(551)333-5249.

      Delete
  6. Natural herbs have cured so many illness that drugs and injection can’t cure. I've seen the great importance of natural herbs and the wonderful work they have done in people's lives. i read people's testimonies online on how they were cured of HERPES, HIV, diabetics etc by Dr Edes herbal medicine, so i decided to contact the doctor because i know nature has the power to heal anything. I was diagnosed with Herpes for the past 3 years but Dr Edes cured me with his herbs and i referred my aunt and her husband to him immediately because they were both suffering from Herpes but to God be the glory, they were cured too .I know is hard to believe but am a living testimony. There is no harm trying herbs, Thanks. Write him on WhatsApp on +2348151937428. @dr_edes_remedies deals with
    (1)Alzheimer virus
    (2)Cancer
    (3)HIV
    (4)Herpes
    (5)Genital warts
    (6)ALS
    (7)Virginal infection
    (8)HPV
    (9)Hepatitis
    (10)Asthma
    Email him on dredeshome@gmail.com
    https://dredesherbalhome.weebly.com

    ReplyDelete
  7. GREAT LOVE SPELL CASTER PRIEST WISDOM THAT HELP ME SAVE MY RELATIONSHIP.TEXT OR ADD HIM UP ON WHATSAPP: +2348124644470


     My name is CLARA JAMES .i want to give thanks to PRIEST WISDOM for bringing back my ex husband.No one could have ever made me believe that the letter I’m about to write would actually one day be written. I was the world’s biggest skeptic. I never believed in magic spells or anything like this, but I was told by a reliable source (a very close co-worker) that Trust is a very dedicated, gifted, and talented person,It was one of the best things I have ever done. My love life was in shambles; I had been through two divorces and was on the brink of a third. I just couldn't face another divorce, and I wanted to try harder to make our relationship work, but my husband didn’t seem to care. and he broke up with me again.I was confused and did not know what to do again,rather they got in contact with PRIEST WISDOM . He did a love spell that made my husband come back to me. We are now very much happy with ourselves. PRIEST WISDOM makes him realize how much we love and need each other.This man is for REAL and for good.he can also help you to fix your broken relationship. I had my husband back! It was like a miracle! He suddenly wanted to go to marriage counseling, and we’re doing very, very well,in our love life.contact email Supernaturalspell1@gmail.com or his web page   https://supernaturalspell21.blogspot.com/      text or add him up on whatsApp at: +2348124644470

    ReplyDelete
  8. GREAT LOVE SPELL CASTER PRIEST WISDOM THAT HELP ME SAVE MY RELATIONSHIP.TEXT OR ADD HIM UP ON WHATSAPP: +2348124644470


     My name is CLARA JAMES .i want to give thanks to PRIEST WISDOM for bringing back my ex husband.No one could have ever made me believe that the letter I’m about to write would actually one day be written. I was the world’s biggest skeptic. I never believed in magic spells or anything like this, but I was told by a reliable source (a very close co-worker) that Trust is a very dedicated, gifted, and talented person,It was one of the best things I have ever done. My love life was in shambles; I had been through two divorces and was on the brink of a third. I just couldn't face another divorce, and I wanted to try harder to make our relationship work, but my husband didn’t seem to care. and he broke up with me again.I was confused and did not know what to do again,rather they got in contact with PRIEST WISDOM . He did a love spell that made my husband come back to me. We are now very much happy with ourselves. PRIEST WISDOM makes him realize how much we love and need each other.This man is for REAL and for good.he can also help you to fix your broken relationship. I had my husband back! It was like a miracle! He suddenly wanted to go to marriage counseling, and we’re doing very, very well,in our love life.contact email Supernaturalspell1@gmail.com or his web page   https://supernaturalspell21.blogspot.com/      text or add him up on whatsApp at: +2348124644470

    ReplyDelete
  9. CONTACT A GREAT SPELL CASTER DR IFADE TO BRING YOUR EX LOVER BACK VIA EMAIL ifadesolutionspell31@gmail.com WHATSAPP NUMBER +2349060120490. OR +1(551)333-5249.
    My name is Lisa Sandra   ,Am from Spain i live in USA,i never believe there will ever be a solution to my relationship problem with my lover. my lover called Randy West threw me out of his house and brought in another lady who he now feels is best for him. until one day i receive a phone call from a friend in the city that my man is going out on a date with another woman in town, i told her i am also surprise too, because since Randy West has left me he hardly think nor call me. so after some few days my friend called Alice called me and told me that she has found a man that is very powerful, and he is a great herbalist from Africa, truly we all knows that Africans are blessed with so much herbal powers which they use to help much people, so he told me that the man name is DR IFADE that she will forward his email address for me so that i can contact him for help, so truly she sent me DR IFADE email address and i contacted him that faithful day. he mailed me after a while that my man will be back to me if only i believe on his work,so after 48hours i receive a phone call from Randy West, and he started begging that i should please forgive him against all he had done to me.. he begged me for breaking my heart and he promise never to let go. now i and Randy West are now planning to get married as soon as possible. we are brought back with the great powerful love spell and blinded with DR IFADE spell, we are happy and glad. contact DR IFADE on this Email address ifadesolutionspell31@gmail.com  OR via WhatsApp number +2349060120490. OR +1(551)333-5249.

    ReplyDelete
  10. CONTACT A GREAT SPELL CASTER DR IFADE TO BRING YOUR EX LOVER BACK VIA EMAIL ifadesolutionspell31@gmail.com WHATSAPP NUMBER +2349060120490. OR +1(551)333-5249.
    My name is Lisa Sandra   ,Am from Spain i live in USA,i never believe there will ever be a solution to my relationship problem with my lover. my lover called Randy West threw me out of his house and brought in another lady who he now feels is best for him. until one day i receive a phone call from a friend in the city that my man is going out on a date with another woman in town, i told her i am also surprise too, because since Randy West has left me he hardly think nor call me. so after some few days my friend called Alice called me and told me that she has found a man that is very powerful, and he is a great herbalist from Africa, truly we all knows that Africans are blessed with so much herbal powers which they use to help much people, so he told me that the man name is DR IFADE that she will forward his email address for me so that i can contact him for help, so truly she sent me DR IFADE email address and i contacted him that faithful day. he mailed me after a while that my man will be back to me if only i believe on his work,so after 48hours i receive a phone call from Randy West, and he started begging that i should please forgive him against all he had done to me.. he begged me for breaking my heart and he promise never to let go. now i and Randy West are now planning to get married as soon as possible. we are brought back with the great powerful love spell and blinded with DR IFADE spell, we are happy and glad. contact DR IFADE on this Email address ifadesolutionspell31@gmail.com  OR via WhatsApp number +2349060120490. OR +1(551)333-5249.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I am Lisa , I promise to share my testimony to the world once my boyfriend returns back to me, and today with all due respect I want to thank Dr Iwisa for bringing joy and happiness to my relationship and my family. I want to inform you all that there is a spell caster that is real and genuine. I never believed in any of these things until I lost my boyfriend, I required help until I found a great spell caster, And he cast a love spell for me, and he assured me that I will get my boyfriend back in two days after the spell has been cast. Three days later, my phone rang, and so shockingly, it was my boyfriend who has not called me for the past 2 years now, and made an apology for the heart break, and told me that he is ready to be my backbone for the rest of his life with me. Dr Iwisa released him to know how much I loved and wanted him. And opened his eyes to picture how much we have shared together. As I`m writing this testimony right now I`m the happiest girl on earth and me and my boyfriend are living a happy life and our love is now stronger than how it was even before our break up. So that`s why I promised to share my testimony all over the universe. All thanks goes to Dr Iwisa for the excessive work that he has done for me. Below is the email address in any situation you are undergoing, it may be a heart break, and I assure you that as he has done mine he will definitely help you too.

      https://superiorspellhome.webnode.com/

      Call & Whatsapp+27730886631

      Email:superiorspellhome@gmail.com

      Delete
  11. Thanks dr jumba you promised and you did it god almighty will continue to bless you as you help people reunite their broken relationship and broken marriages .  I never thought I will smile again, My husband left me with two kids for one year, All effort to bring him back failed I thought I'm not going to see him again not until I met a lady called rose who told me about a spell caster called DR jumba, She gave me his email address and mobile number and I contacted him and he assured me that within 48hours my husband will come back to me, In less than 48hours my husband came back started begging for forgiveness saying it is the devils work, so I'm still surprise till now about this miracle,i couldn't conceive but as soon as the spell was cast,i became pregnant and gave birth to my third child,if you need any assistance from him you can contact him via: email:  wiccalovespelltools@gmail.com  or Call/WhatsApp him:  +19085174108  BLOG : blog : https://wiccaspelltools.blogspot.com/  
    WEBSITE:  drjumbaspellhome.wordpress.com 

    ReplyDelete
  12. Hello everyone, I’m so happy because I am free from (HERPES) I have been suffering from HERPES since the past three years now, and I have passed through many different processes in getting cured from herpes but nothing was working out. A friend of mine introduced me to a man called Dr.Balogun who sent me a herbal medicine which he prepared for me and told me to use the herbal medicine for 21 days which i did, and my life get transformed and everything is fine and okay with me. Till now I have been going for check up and it is now going to four months and I am still negative.Thanks once again Dr.Balogun may God bless your good works. so contact him today via email balogun.herbalsolutioncenter@gmail.com you can also call or WhatsApp him on +2349064881054.

    ReplyDelete
  13. Do You Need A Powerful Africa Native Doctor? I Mean A Spiritual Herbalist
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    ReplyDelete
  14. My name is sharon smith, i live in UK. My life is back!!! After 2 years of Broken marriage, my husband left me with two kids, I felt like ending it all.I came across several testimonies about this particular spell caster. Some people testified that he brought their Ex lover back, some testified that he restores womb,cure cancer,and other sickness, some testified that he can cast a spell to stop divorce and also spell to get a good paid job so on. He is amazing, i also came across one particular testimony, it was about a woman called Vera, she testified about how he brought back her Ex lover in less than 24 hours, and at the end of her testimony she dropped his email.After reading all these, I decided to give it a try. I contacted him via email and explained my problem to him. In just 24hours, my husband came back to me. We resolved our issues, and we are even happier than ever. DR LOVE0 you are a gifted man and i will not stop publishing him because he is a wonderful man. If you have a problem and you are looking for a real and genuine spell caster, Try him anytime, he is the answer to your problems. you can contact him through his email: (doctor0lovespell@gmail.com) or contact his FB page:https://www.facebook.com/Lovespellthatworkfastusa or visit his website: https://doctor0lovespell.wixsite.com/mysite-2 or check blogs: https://doctorlovespell0.blogspot.com/

    ReplyDelete
  15. Do You Need A Powerful Africa Native Doctor? I Mean A Spiritual Herbalist
    With Great Spirit Connected To Ancestors. Call or WhatsApp +2349058774809 Dr Obodubu Monday Is A High Voodoo Priest Master. He is a Spell Caster, Native
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    Astrologer, Psychic Reader, Multi Guru, Witch Doctor, Priest Of Africa
    Money Ritual.
    Have You Been To Native Doctor to Native Doctor Without Any Solution To
    Your Problems Or Rather Add To it? Have You Been To Place To Place In View
    Of A Powerful Native Doctor That Can Solve All Your Predicament, You Must
    Understand That There Is A Native Doctor That Supersede All Native Doctor
    Among All Native Doctor, If You Are In Search Of A Powerful Native Doctor
    With Great Spiritual Powers, Then You Must Be In Search Of A Native Doctor
    That Derives Power From The Marine World. That Is The Spirituality Of The
    Greatest Africa Native Doctor Obodubu.
    Dr Obodubu Is Recognized All Over The World Of Marine Kingdom, As One
    Of The Top Fortunate And Most Powerful Native Doctor Of Charms Casts From
    The Beginning Of His Ancestors ship Until Now Dr who lives Strong
    Among All Other Native Doctors, There Have Never Been Any Form Of
    Impossibility Beyond The Control Of Dr Obodubu. It Doesn't Matter The
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    Is Believe
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    Sand etc. Are Near You, Then Your Problems Of Life Would Be Controlled
    Under Your Foot.
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    Get Your Lover Back
    Fruit Of The Womb
    Fibroid
    Business Boom
    Financial Breakthrough
    Get Rich Without Ritual WhatsApp +2349058774809
    Do As I Say
    Bad Dream
    Promise And Fail
    Epilepsy
    Spiritual Attack
    Land/Court Case
    Mental Disorder
    Political Appointment
    Visa Approval
    Cancer
    Examination Success
    Spend And Get Back
    Good Luck
    Natural Health
    Hypertension
    Diabesity (Diabetic+Obesity
    Stroke
    Sickle Cell
    Impotency
    Win Court Case
    Promotion At Work
    Commanding Tone
    Protection Ring
    Marriage Success
    Love Ring
    Favour Ring
    Recover Lost Glory
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    Travel Success Ring
    Job Success
    Lotto/Pool Win And Many More.
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    Email: babadoctorobodubuspiritualhome@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  16. Court case spells to win any legal matter & stay out of jail. Legal spells to influence court verdict in your favor. Spells to get a court case dismissed or freeze a court. Get justice, fix your legal matters, get child custody & make the judge rule in your favor using voodoo court case spells & witchcraft court case spells.
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    ReplyDelete
  17. Court case spells to win any legal matter & stay out of jail. Legal spells to influence court verdict in your favor. Spells to get a court case dismissed or freeze a court. Get justice, fix your legal matters, get child custody & make the judge rule in your favor using voodoo court case spells & witchcraft court case spells.
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  19. If you want a spell that is solely about getting your lover back in your arms, this spell has significant energy just to do that for your love life. This spell has the ability to influence your lover to come home no matter what forces are keeping them away. Using my magical native lost love spells, I can bring back your ex-husband or ex-wife to you, if you still love them and want them back.

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  20. Lotto spells to get the winning numbers for the lottery jackpot. Get the winning lotto numbers with the help of lotto spells. Powerful lottery spells to help you become the next millionaire after winning the lottery jackpot.

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