Ancient Reptilian 'Hand' Muscles Have Been Found in Human Embryos - Physics-Astronomy.org

Ancient Reptilian 'Hand' Muscles Have Been Found in Human Embryos

Back when you were just a fingernail-sized blob in your mother's uterus, your tiny baby flippers had far more in common with the paws of ancient reptiles than you might be comfortable with.




Special immunostaining techniques carried out by scientists from Washington's Howard University and Sorbonne University in Paris have revealed new human atavisms – remnants of anatomy that evolution never completely ditched – which help to explain how our bodies evolved.
"It used to be that we had more understanding of the early development of fishes, frogs, chicken and mice than in our own species, but these new techniques allow us to see human development in much greater detail," says Howard University evolutionary biologist, Rui Diogo.
Limb muscles thought to have been abandoned by our mammalian ancestors 250 million years ago never completely went away. In most of us, the muscles dissolve long before we're born, but these 'reptilian' remnants can still be found in some adults.
In the new study, by scanning the tissues of more than a dozen embryos and young foetuses in high-res 3D over a number of weeks, the team found tiny muscles in the hands and feet of a 7-week-old that were no longer visible by week 13.
While it's not the first time researchers have looked closely at the coming-and-going of tissues in tiny humans, most research on limb muscles has focussed on earlier weeks, missing crucial changes.
As the researchers watched, around a third of the muscles in the embryo's hands and feet simply withered away over the days, or fused with their neighbours. 


Crucially, the fact some of them exist at all in our lifetime is a little surprising. Muscles called dorsometacarpales were thought to have been thrown out of the mammalian instruction manual back when evolution was still coming up with our prototypes around 250 million years ago.
The study's record of limb development also challenges the assumption that lower limbs are more or less copies of our upper limbs.
While in adults the two parts have similar-looking structures that make it seem like a cut-and-paste job, the order of development of key muscle groups suggests the limbs came to resemble each another's forms over time.
Evolution is a funny thing. While we often use language that imagines it has some grand plan, biology is more often than not a process of trial and error, where random changes modify structures to potentially suit new functions.
Evolutionary biologists have the task of teasing apart the process of this modification, often by looking for anatomical structures to compare between modern organisms.
Finding the faint traces of ancient muscles early in our development adds crucial details to the story of our evolution.
As Diogo explained to BBC's Michelle Roberts, the way organisms adapt isn't a simple process of throwing out an old plan in favour of a new one.
"Probably, we cannot just say in evolution, 'Look, I will delete from scratch, from day zero, the muscle going to digits two, three, four, five, and I will just keep the one going to the thumb'."


To add to the complexity, the researchers note adults with certain chromosomal disorders don't lose these muscles, either as a seemingly healthy variation or as a result of congenital malformation.
"This reinforces the idea that both muscle variations and pathologies can be related to delayed or arrested embryonic development, in this case perhaps a delay or decrease of muscle apoptosis, and helps to explain why these muscles are occasionally found in adult people," says Diogo.  
"It provides a fascinating, powerful example of evolution at play."
Applying similar staining and imaging technology to other stages in human development could yet reveal other structures long thought to have faded from our bodies.

15 comments:

  1. I am excited to share this testimony, I was 3 years ago diagnosed of fibroid and complicated Endometriosis. My medical condition was heart broken because it was causing my menstrual cramps,bloating before menstrual periods,lower abdominal pressure which result to heavy periods. I was subjected to different medications by my doctor for treatment . Despite my visit to several doctors my health wasn't getting better, all they could say was surgery. At the verge of giving up, I went to the internet to search for a treatment at least. But I found a cure instead. In the internet, I read a testimony of a lady who had Fibroid. She shared an e-mail address of the Doctor. Luckily everything seemed to be okay after I took the Herbal Medicine. I wish I could say that’s the end of it because I haven't had any symptoms since then. Do not expose yourself to more danger, use a herbal remedy that is safe and effective. if anyone here need help in curing his/her fibroid or trying to conceive should also contact him also have herbal medicine for HIV, Herpes, Cancer, Hepatitis etc and deal with spiritual problems too once again you can email him via email address drafridherbalhome@gmail.com. or call/whatsApp him on +2349057260738, you can still know more about him on his website:http://drafridherbalhome.webs.com  

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hello everyone,
      I don't know the reason why some people are finding it difficult to believe that there is a cure for hiv. My name is Andre Douglas, i have been hiv since past three years with my girlfriend, but today i am happy that i am HIV negative with the help of the herbal medicine of Dr O.water, the great healer. I was browsing the internet searching for help when i came across a testimony shared by someone on how Dr O.water cured him of hiv. I have always believed that there is solution to all problem. I am in Bedum, Netherlands but I tried my best to make sure i spoke to Dr O.water because i was so much in need of getting his treatment. Fortunately for me, i got the medicine and used it as instructed. Dr O.water brought a smile to my
      face with his herbal medicine. I am so much happy today that we have someone like this great healer out there. So my people, kindly contact this healer on his email: DRWATERHIVCURECENTRE@GMAIL.COM or whatsapp: 2349050205019. please sir keep your good work because there are people out there who is in need of your healing medicine. He can also cure Herpes, Hepatitis B,Hepatitis C, HPV, Diabetes, Cancer, Asthma and more

      Delete
    2. This is real take it serious, who will believe that a herb can cure HERPES DISEASE in my body, i never believe that this will work i have spend a lot when getting drugs from the hospital to keep me healthy, what i was waiting for is death because i was broke, one day i hard about this great man who is well know of HIV,cancer and herpes cure, i decided to email him, unknowingly to me that this will be the end of the HERPES DISEASE, he prepare the herb for me, and give me instruction on how to take it, at the end of the week which was seven days,he told me to go to the hospital for a check up, and i went surprisingly after it the doctor confirm me cure from HERPES disease I thought it was a joke, i went to other hospital the doctor there also confirm me cure from HERPES disease then i took my friend who was also HERPES patient to the Doctor after the taking of the herbs she was also confirm cure from HERPES disease .please I want every one with this virus to be free, that is why am dropping his email address,(drodukuherbalhealingcentre@gmail.com or his whatsap contact +2348124765093) you can visit his website https://drodukuherbalhealingcentre.weebly.com
       https://dr-oduku-herbal-healing-centre.business.site i want you to email him he is a great man. thank you for saving my life, and I promise I will always testify for your good work. you can also reach me clararose2128@gmail.com

      Delete
    3. i already gave up on ever getting cured of HSV2 because i have try many treatment none of them work out for me i have go to different hospital they always tell me same thing there is no cure for herpes when i came across a post about Dr ohunyom, in the net from a lady called Angela i contacted him and he reassured me with him herbal medicine which i took according to the way he instructed, that how i was cured. I doubted at first because i have been to a whole lot of reputable doctors, tried a lot of medicines but none was able to cure me. so i decided to listen to him and he commenced treatment, and under two weeks i was totally fee from #Herpes. i want to say a very big thank you to DR ohunyom for what he has done in my life. feel free to leave him a message on email drohunyom@gmail.com and also WhatsApp him +2349060579973..
      He can still be able to help you with this herbs medicine:
      1...ALS CURE/DIABETES CURE/EPILESY/HPV CURE/LUPUS/HEPATITIS/CANCER/GOUT  

      Delete

  2. Herbal Penis Enlargement product is 100% guarantee to Enlarge and get a better ERECTION ,
    the reason why most people are finding it difficult
    to enlarge Penis is because they believe on medical
    report, drugs and medical treatment which is not
    helpful for Penis Enlargement . Natural roots/herbs are the best remedy which can easily Enlarge your Penis permanently
    Contact Dr Aziba via Email : PRIESTAZIBASOLUTIONCENTER@GMAIL.COM or via WhatsApp : +2348100368288 for Natural root and herbal remedies put together to help you get Enlarge and Erect healthy.
    Thank you.

    ReplyDelete
  3. DR EDIDIA THE TRADITIONAL HERBAL DOCTOR CURE ME FROM FIBROID.
     I've seen the great importance of natural herbal medicine am the happiest person on earth now I really don't know how to thank DR Edidia for getting me  cured for over how many year of suffering from FIBROID. I experienced pelvic pain, heavy menstrual bleeding and I had several miscarriages. I went to the hospital and I was diagnosed of multiple fibroid and I was treated but nothing seems to be working i came across DR Edidia contact through a headline news on internet about how DR Edidia help a woman to get cured of his fibroid and so many other with similar body problem ,i contacted him and he told me how to get his herb,few day later he sent me the herbal medicine and i take it as he instructed, and his medicine was able to shrike the fibroid naturally,and now am , and now am now finally free from fibroid If you have fibroid, you can contact him on his Email: address, dredidiaherbalhome@gmail.com or on WhatsApp +2349074505296 for advice and for his product. here is the Dr website http://dredidiaherbalhome.weebly.com/ https://dr-edidia-herbal-home.business.site/ 
    also visit my facebook pages https://www.facebook.com/dredidiaherbs/?modal=admin_todo_tour OR https://www.facebook.com/HIV-CURE-1359918664158191/?modal=admin_todo_tour  

    ReplyDelete
  4. DR EDIDIA THE TRADITIONAL HERBAL DOCTOR CURE ME FROM FIBROID.
     I've seen the great importance of natural herbal medicine am the happiest person on earth now I really don't know how to thank DR Edidia for getting me  cured for over how many year of suffering from FIBROID. I experienced pelvic pain, heavy menstrual bleeding and I had several miscarriages. I went to the hospital and I was diagnosed of multiple fibroid and I was treated but nothing seems to be working i came across DR Edidia contact through a headline news on internet about how DR Edidia help a woman to get cured of his fibroid and so many other with similar body problem ,i contacted him and he told me how to get his herb,few day later he sent me the herbal medicine and i take it as he instructed, and his medicine was able to shrike the fibroid naturally,and now am , and now am now finally free from fibroid If you have fibroid, you can contact him on his Email: address, dredidiaherbalhome@gmail.com or on WhatsApp +2349074505296 for advice and for his product. here is the Dr website http://dredidiaherbalhome.weebly.com/ https://dr-edidia-herbal-home.business.site/ 
    also visit my facebook pages https://www.facebook.com/dredidiaherbs/?modal=admin_todo_tour OR https://www.facebook.com/HIV-CURE-1359918664158191/?modal=admin_todo_tour  

    ReplyDelete
  5. 5 years ago I had warts, I was treated with some liquid applied to the warts they continued to grow and spread... The next 2 doctors did laser surgery to remove them. 1 year after the surgery, they grew back close to where the 1st ones were' so I was finally told it was hpv. I have had it for very long time, I contract it from my cheated boyfriend and I found out he was also infected and I end up the relationship between us. the warts was so embarrasses because it started spreading all over I have be dealing with this things for very long time the last treatment I take was About 2 years ago I applied natural treatment from Dr onokun herbal cure, a week after applying the treatment all the warts was gone. it's now 2 years and some months I don't have single wart or any symptoms of hpv. wow"" it's great, Dr onokun has finally cured me. Anyone living with hpv contact Dr onokun for natural treatment.
    His email address: dronokunherbalcure@gmail.com  

    ReplyDelete
  6. Hello everyone. Dr. Osalu Herbs is a good remedy for herpes Virus , I was a carrier of herpes virus  and I saw a testimony on how Dr. Osalu cure Herpes Virus, I decided to contact him, I contacted him and he guided me. I asked him for solutions and he started the remedies for my health. After he finish he sent me the herbs which i took for 2 weeks before asking me to go for a check up and getting there i could not believe that i was confirm HSV 2 Negative after the test,Today i am so happy because i'm free from herpes disease with the help of Dr. Osalu  Thank God now everything is fine, I'm cured by Dr. Osalu herbal medicine, I'm very thankful to God for making it possible. you can reach him on his email, i strongly recommend him to any one out here looking for a cure . drosaluherbalhome@gmail.com or call/whatsapp +2348078668950.     

    ReplyDelete
  7. Hello everyone out there, I'm here to give my testimony about a herbalist doctor who helped me. I was infected with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in 2011, I went to many hospitals to heal myself but there was no solution, so I was thinking how I can get a solution so that my body can be well. One day I was in the river thinking about where I can go to get a solution. so a lady walked towards me telling me why I'm so sad and I open everything by telling her my problem, she told me she could help me, she introduced me to a doctor who uses herbal medicines to cure the SIMPLEX HERPES VIRUS and gave me your email, so I sent you an email. He told me everything I had to do and also gave me instructions to take, which I followed correctly. Before I knew what was happening after two weeks, the SIMPLEX HERPES VIRUS that was in my body disappeared. therefore, if you also have a broken heart and need help, you can also send an email to {oliha.miraclemedicine@gmail.com}or whatsapp him number: +2349038382931 or Facebook page https://www.facebook.com/drolihamiraclemedicine/Contact him today and he will have a testimony ... Good luck!
    Dr. OLIHA also cures:1. HIV / AIDS2. HERPES 1/23. CANCER4. ALS (Lou Gehrig's disease)5. Hepatitis B6. chronic pancreatic7. emphysema8. COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)

    ReplyDelete
  8. whats-app: + 12675279481
    Visit his website :http://drsambo443.website2.me/
    Hello everyone , good day , i just want to share a review on what happened to me and my uncle last month . when i thought i have seen it all but Dr Sambo let me know that there is more to life . i had Herpes Simplest Virus HSV2 and my uncle was tested HIV positive . we spent a lot trying to get cured ,until i contacted Dr Sambo for a help . just within 21 days his herbal medicine cured me and my uncle , its still unbelievable to me and other member of my family . but I'm cured and my uncle is now tested HIV negative just after 21day . this is a miracle. i do not know how else i can appreciate Dr Sambo for his works , other than to share my review for others to see ........  

    ReplyDelete
  9. whats-app: + 12675279481
    Visit his website :http://drsambo443.website2.me/
    Hello everyone , good day , i just want to share a review on what happened to me and my uncle last month . when i thought i have seen it all but Dr Sambo let me know that there is more to life . i had Herpes Simplest Virus HSV2 and my uncle was tested HIV positive . we spent a lot trying to get cured ,until i contacted Dr Sambo for a help . just within 21 days his herbal medicine cured me and my uncle , its still unbelievable to me and other member of my family . but I'm cured and my uncle is now tested HIV negative just after 21day . this is a miracle. i do not know how else i can appreciate Dr Sambo for his works , other than to share my review for others to see ........  

    ReplyDelete
  10. whats-app: + 12675279481
    Visit his website :http://drsambo443.website2.me/
    Hello everyone , good day , i just want to share a review on what happened to me and my uncle last month . when i thought i have seen it all but Dr Sambo let me know that there is more to life . i had Herpes Simplest Virus HSV2 and my uncle was tested HIV positive . we spent a lot trying to get cured ,until i contacted Dr Sambo for a help . just within 21 days his herbal medicine cured me and my uncle , its still unbelievable to me and other member of my family . but I'm cured and my uncle is now tested HIV negative just after 21day . this is a miracle. i do not know how else i can appreciate Dr Sambo for his works , other than to share my review for others to see ........  

    ReplyDelete
  11. Life has not been so easy for me, i almost gave up on getting cured of HSV2 because i have tried many treatment and still don't work for me, so i was going place to place just for me to search for herbs cure or any solution to my problem and i also have three kids to take care of, that same period my husband die in an accident on it way coming home so life was very tough for me, so when i was going through the herbs site to find a cure for my problem i saw a story about a lady testify about DR.Imoudu, so i said to my self let me give a try to see if my problem can be solved, because i have spend alot of money In the hospital and their was no cure for it, so i contacted DR.Imoudu that afternoon of it and he gave me instruction how i will go about it and he sent me a herbal medicine which I took according to the way he instructed me to do. After taking the medicine for two weeks i saw a changes on my body, then i called the Dr and told him about it and he said i should go for test. i can't believe when my result came out it was negative, i was very happy to share this great testimony to the world there is real cure for #herpes you can also contact DR.Imoudu Email: DR.IMOUDUHEALERTEMPLE@GMAIL. COM also WhatsApp him +2348109609753..
    He also have herbs medicine to cured the following diseases;
    Diabetes, Lupus, Gout, Hepatitis A,B, Infertility, HIV/AIDS, CANCER, WART,ALS CURE/DIABETES CURE/EPILEPSY/HPV CURE/LOOSE WEIGHT AND BODY/EX-BACK/stroke


    ReplyDelete
  12. i already gave up on ever getting cured of HSV2 because i have try many treatment none of them work out for me i have go to different hospital they always tell me same thing there is no cure for herpes when i came across a post about Dr ohunyom, in the net from a lady called Angela i contacted him and he reassured me with him herbal medicine which i took according to the way he instructed, that how i was cured. I doubted at first because i have been to a whole lot of reputable doctors, tried a lot of medicines but none was able to cure me. so i decided to listen to him and he commenced treatment, and under two weeks i was totally fee from #Herpes. i want to say a very big thank you to DR ohunyom for what he has done in my life. feel free to leave him a message on email drohunyom@gmail.com and also WhatsApp him +2349060579973..
    He can still be able to help you with this herbs medicine:
    1...ALS CURE/DIABETES CURE/EPILESY/HPV CURE/LUPUS/HEPATITIS/CANCER/GOUT  

    ReplyDelete

Powered by Blogger.